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Antique Marine Engines and Outboard Motors

Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers


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  #1  
Old 11-12-2005, 02:44 PM
Desblair Desblair is offline
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Default Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers

I'm an ex-marine engineer and seeking information on the main engines of the t'2 tankers built during the 2nd world war. Are there any old engineers out there with drawings or photos and perhaps stories of these great machines.
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Old 11-12-2005, 07:18 PM
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ListerDiesel ListerDiesel is offline
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Default Re: Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers

A clue of what 'they' were would maybe help jog some memories? t'2 doesn't do a lot for my memory buds! :-))

We went on the Liberty Ship in SFO a year or so back, and the USS Pampanito the following year. The steam engine in the Liberty Ship was nice to look over, and both lots of engine rooms were very interesting. Pictures of both on our website.

Peter
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Old 12-18-2005, 06:10 PM
agsem agsem is offline
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Default Re: Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers

I too am an ex Marine Engineer, and during my seagoing career I sailed eight T2's. Take a gander at
http://t2tanker.org/ships/t2photos1.html
to see a couple pics I contributed to
http://t2tanker.org
Dave Whittaker hopes to be the world wide source for everything about WW II T series tank ships.
Around here someplace I do have some T2 engine room pictures. I will try and remember to look for them. But it was hard to take pics of much at one time, in the relatively small T2 engine rooms.
Greg
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Old 12-19-2005, 01:26 PM
agsem agsem is offline
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Photo Re: Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers

I am in the process of scanning an old T2 instruction book, three images attached
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T2-003.jpg   T2-004.jpg   T2-005.jpg  
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Old 01-30-2006, 06:28 PM
agsem agsem is offline
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Photo Re: Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers

Since the name of this thread is T2 Main Engines, I offer the attached images - in this message and the next, which I took in 1961 on the Leon Falk Jr, a War 2 built T2 tanker, converted – with a new 580 foot mid body – to a bulk carrier in 1960-61. The T2 Main Unit was operated with the Operating Console levers shown. The furthest left lever was the directional control, shown in the forward position as we were underway at sea, to reverse – go astern – this lever was hauled all the way back. The center lever is the speed control, which in the stop position is all the way forward, haul it back to increase speed. The right hand lever was an emergency lever I never had to use. It was to manually control the steam to the turbine, over-riding the governor throttle steam valve, and it is shown in it’s normal position, all the way aft, all the way open. To the right of the Operating Console are the cargo pump electric motor switches and meters.

Aux-Gen-switchboard: This being a Westinghouse plant, the 480 VAC generator circuit breaker is a manual circuit breaker. Like a household 15 amp circuit breaker. But MUCH larger, needing the LONG sturdy handles shown to close. They were tripped by a mechanical button shown. The GE plants used electric operated solenoids controlled by angle switches, larger than, but the same shape as the center switch in the middle panel – just above the handrail, the DC exciter panel. On Westinghouse this switch mentioned controlled the aux turbine governor, speeding up or slowing down the aux turbine, when paralleling two aux gens. You used this in conjunction with the synchronizing lamps and synchronizing meter, just above the synchronizing lamps. You will also notice at the bottom of the panels, that Westinghouse used knife switches with these long sturdy handles, to dis-connect the AC line and the field, from the buss, while GE used solenoid controlled circuit breakers. As shown the outboard, or starboard, aux turbo gen was carrying the load, while the inboard, or port unit was physically disconnected from the buss.

Boiler Combustion Control Board, located in the fire room. On the right you will notice the forced draft pressure gages, on the left a selectable electric stack gas temperature meter. The two vertical shafts topped by valve wheels ran down through the watertight boiler pan below (through watertight stuffing boxes) with mechanical linkage to the shaft alley below, and were connected to the steam inlet valves for the two steam turbine boiler feed water pumps, located in the shaft alley. The pair of red watertight electric switches to the left are for the two electric motor driven fuel oil pumps, usually only one in service at a time. The three red watertight electric switches to the right were for the three, two speed, electric motor driven forced draft fans. Usually the port and starboard ran all the time, but, by swinging some dampers up there in the top of the fidley, on the forced draft air ducting, the center fan could power either boiler when needed. Like when doing maintenance on either the port or starboard fan @ sea. The square panel in the middle was the primary combustion control panel, slaved to the round main steam pressure controller above it. The two round units either side are the combustion air controllers, that controlled pneumatic dampers between the Forced Draft Fans and the furnace. The lower left black face pressure gage is feed pump pressure, above it the three black face gages were fuel oil pressure, with pump discharge the center gage, and fuel oil manifold pressure for each boiler on either side. The larger top port and starboard gages are the super heater outlet pressure gages for the appropriate boiler, inboard of them the saturated steam outlet pressure. You will note the engine order telegraph repeater on top of the board, the clock beneath it.

Main Unit-Turbine Left-Generator Right-Butterworth Steam Piping on Bulkhead. The Westinghouse main turbine is a complete expansion single cylinder, unidirectional, impulse-reaction with three stages of extraction. The turbine has 25 or 27 stages, depending if it is an older or newer War Two model. One Curtis impulse wheel and 24 or 26 rows of reaction blading. You can see the white painted large main steam line to the top of the throttle valve. The Main Generator is rated at 5,400 KW, and operates at unity power factor. They are three phase two pole machines generating 2,400 volts, 62 cycles and 3,720 rpm. The generators are wye connected, @ sea the field excitation – delivered by slip rings as the rotor is the field -- is normally 120 VDC, 230 amps at full rated power. During periods of maneuvering the field voltage and current ratings are considerably higher.

One of the REALLY nice things about Turbo Electric versus Geared turbine drive, is that in rough weather where the propeller may come out of the water, one does not have to stand a throttle watch. Ready to slow down the turbine when the wheel comes out of the water, because the main unit is always governor controlled. Wheel buried under thirty feet of water or out in the air, the speed does not vary. The speed of the ship is controlled by the turbine governor, since the main generator is electrically connected to the main motor, and the two are synchronized, locked in step with each other.

Main Cargo Pump-Motor Behind. When this ship was a tanker, there was a watertight and gas tight bulkhead between the three 480 VAC 3 phase 200 HP cargo pump motors, located in the engine room, and the direct coupled pumps within the pump room. The motor – pump coupling was in the engine room, then the shaft passed through a stuffing box to the pump room. But as the Leon Falk Jr was a bulk carrier portions of this bulkhead was removed to provide easy direct access to the pump room. You can see remnants of that original bulkhead to the left in this picture and near the top. On the Leon Falk Jr these pumps were used for pumping in and out the large double bottom and side wing ballast tanks common with bulk carriers.

Main Motor Thrust Bearing in Shaft Alley. External Main Motor Kingsbury thrust bearing, just chipped and primed prior to finish painting. The steam piping to the left is for the main steam turbine driven boiler feed water pumps.

Marin Motor. This pic shows a gang of men assembling a T2 Main Motor in a Marin Shipyard. Installed aboard ship the main motor was enclosed in a stout steel gasketed water tight housing with forced air cooling. There were steam heating coils and sea water cooling coils within the housing between the blower and the motor. As installed the only way a Main Motor could be removed was by removing a lot of auxiliary equipment that surrounded it, and cutting a hole in the starboard hull. But I never had a Main Motor problem that required removal. Unlike main generators, which were replaced on two T2’s I sailed. But the engine room stairways, illustrated in Main Unit-Turbine Left-Generator Right, were easily removable, and lifting off the engine room skylight made it an easy shore side crane lift to replace a generator.

Main Motor. Located in the lower engine room, just forward of the water tight bulkhead with the shaft alley, the Synchronous Main Motor power input is 4,625 KVA, with a 6,000 HP power output. The armature current is 1,160 amps, at 2,300 volts. The majority of T2’s had this plant, though the US Navy ordered Mission Class T2’s, that were 10,000 HP. The motor speed is 90 rpm, the power factor unity, three phase @ 60 cycles. The rotating motor field is rated at 390 amps @ 125 VDC. Main Motors weighed between 31,000 and 48,000 pounds. That Main Motor schematic is one page of the 192 pages of a T2 steam plant operators guide published by District 2 of the MEBA – Marine Engineers Beneficial Association – the Union to which I belonged. I have scanned all the pages and sent them to Dave Whittaker of http://t2tanker.org fame. Soon as Dave has the time he is going to put it up, probably as several PDF files.
Greg Hayden
Attached Thumbnails
LeonFalkJr-001-4-Operating-Console.jpg   LeonFalkJr-009-4-Aux-Gen-switchboard.jpg   LeonFalkJr-010-4-CombustionControlBoard.jpg   LeonFalkJr-011-4-MainUnit-TurbineLeft-GeneratorRight-ButterworthSteamPipingonBulkhead.jpg  
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Old 01-30-2006, 06:30 PM
agsem agsem is offline
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Photo Re: Main Engines of the T'2 Tankers

Four more pics
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LeonFalkJr-012-4-MainCargoPump-MotorBehind.jpg   LeonFalkJr-014-4-MainMotorThrustBearinginShaftAlley.jpg   MainMotor.jpg   MarinMotor-2.jpg  
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