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Horse Drawn Equipment Old iron designed for the purpose of hitching up to a horse or a team. This old iron machinery may be used or demonstrated while hooked to an old iron tractor too.

Horse Drawn Equipment

The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682


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  #1  
Old 11-27-2016, 09:29:19 AM
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Arrow The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Ok an brandnew horse sleigh thread today.

Talking about horse sleighs.
When you start digging in the history of horse sleighs and you start to wonder your self how far you can go in this.
What is the most oldest sleigh in the world.

Wel sure there where sleighs in the 15 and 16 century but they dit not have style nor design.

The first known design of the horse sleigh in Europe came arround half way the 17 century and in Holland also known or called as the golden age.
In the 17 century Amsterdam, Holland became rich and famoust because of the Dutch Indies VOC.
Large fleeds of gigantic wooden ships full with cargo saled from the west to the east and back brought an lot wealty towards Amsterdam.

An age is 100 years.

British historican Jonathan Israel told once.
You can split up the Dutch golden age in two parts.

The first part is the :

Early golden age 1588 till 1647

Second part is the :

Late golden age 1647 till 1702

So the Dutch golden age was from 1588 till 1702.

Today we are going to start op an thread about an fabulous horse sleigh that was buld in the second half of the golden age in Amsterdam in the old Holland.

The chance is very big with this horse sleigh that is going to show up here in the next weeks is going to be the oldest item ever posted in the history of Smokstak.

So an supper rare thread is on his way towards the horse chanel of Smokstak.

There are many chapters going to follow in this story before we are going to post the real horse sleigh.

Going to start up with the chapter the Dutch golde Age.

The first picture is the most world famoust painting called "The Nightwatch" from Rembrandt.
Rembrandt was the painter from the early golden age.

We are posting this picture because it is the most well known Worldwide simbole from the old Dutch golden age.

Enclosing also pictures of the beautiful Dutch ships that once sailed arround the globe.
These ships sailed under the old Dutch east and west compagnie.

Also post pictures of these fabulous ships because there style and design is also coming back in the Amsterdammer horse sleigh that we have found.

Post also an Dutch music video about the Dutch Golden age.

Now i have been posting an lot of of threads in the past here about the Canadians, French, Americans etc etc.

This one wil go about Holland.

And Holland is America, Canada, France, England, Australia, New Zealand, Belgium, Germany etc etc



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBIB2YkGFa8
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Old 11-27-2016, 09:43:29 AM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Post some more pictures belonged to the first chapter.

They are very intresting to the design and model of the sleigh.

Picture 4 is the old golden bend street in the center of Amsterdam in the first half of the golden age (the early part of the golden age).
You can see that the street was not full built with house yet with looking at the empty holes.
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Old 11-27-2016, 09:58:48 AM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Style and design of the most early horse sleighs in Holland,

In the first half of the golden age there was not realy and lot design to see on the sleighs on the Ice scenes.

Post an coople Ice scene pictures taken in Holland in the early part of the golden age.

The first 3 painting pictures are date arround the first half of the Golden age.

Picture painting nr 4 is taken arrround the mid golden age.
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Old 11-27-2016, 10:39:58 AM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Ok what is the plan,

The Amsterdammer was buld in and arround the city of Amsterdam in the old Holland in and shortly after the golden age 17 and 18 century.

Arround 7 Amsterdammers realy dit survived in Holland now and maby arround the globe an rough indiction of 25 amsterdammer horse sleighs.

Most of the Amsterdammer sleighs are hidding under the 3 Royal familys of Europe mention 1 in the Versailles at Paris, 4 in the Royal Belgium collection at Bruxelles and 1 the Royal family in the Netherlands.

The rest is hidding in the museums and an coople in private collections.


The one we found was an unknown one from an old castle in France.





Now i have to admit i was never realy touched about the Amsterdammer horse sleigh.

First they have an pretty rough design.

Second most of them do not have an bow statue.

And thirth the images are not always very happy and nice to watch.
Mention half naked gods/men on the panels on the sides are not realy nice things to watch.

In the years of sleigh collecting i realy have seen an coople coming for sale on the market.
I dit not bought them because i was not realy touched by them.

This started to change when an wrekage was found an half year ago on an old castle in France.

The sleigh is in realy bad condition but i was shocked how beautiful design it was.

First : I was having encredible heavy beautiful wood cutting work with with an lot heavy decorations.

Second : The paintings on the sides are beautiful women with beautiful clothing sitting under trees and between sheeps.

Thirth : It is having an big amazing bow statue.

And four : Later it came out that it is having the same marks as one of the most oldest sleigh in Holland 1682....

So an dream horse sleigh.....


Now the plan is in the next weeks we are going to study here an line of models of the Amsterdammers horse sleighs that realy dit survive.

Also going to talk how tings looked in the world arround 1682.

And how we realy can recognise the Amsterdammer horse sleigh.

Then with 2 weeks we start uploading pictures of the sleigh wrek that we have found on that old castle in France.


We start up with and study of the Amsterdammer horse sleigh in the glass showcase of the Versailles at Paris.

More to come,

Last edited by Brothers Clemens; 11-27-2016 at 10:50:38 AM.
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Old 11-27-2016, 12:08:22 PM
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Thumbs up Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Thanks Chris

Great pics and history. Thanks for all the time you put into the horse sleighs.


Al..........
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Old 11-28-2016, 02:38:21 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Thanks Al,

keep follow,


Ok going further,

The Amsterdammer(s) horse sleigh of the Versailles at Paris France,


How can we recognise an Amsterdammer horse sleigh,

Now there where 2 horse sleigh restaurations here in the past.
One was the Richfarmers Sjeesarr the other was the Unicorn Sjeesarr.
The Arr or Sjeesar was part born out of the Amsterdammer with style and design.

On the other hand the real Amsterdammer is an way other sleigh.

Some points of recognise towards the Amsterdammer horse sleigh.

First they are bigger and more heavy buld then the Sjees arr or arr with more heavy woodwork decorations.

Second the main seat stand lower on the gliders.

Thirth the standards (bridges) under the seat for the connection towards the gliders are always look them same in 2 or 3 bridges.
2 are 4 standards and 3 are 6 standards.
For the rest they have there own style and decorations to the time they where made.

Fourth and most importand
All the Amsterdammers have an steel piece of iron going from the back side of the seat downwards to the gliders in somekind of S model with an small piece of decoration iron in the middle of the S.



We are going to study the first Amsterdammer horse sleigh in the Versailles at Paris.



First the pictures.

The first picture in this chapter are not Amsterdammers.
They are the Versailles Palace sleighs that have survived from King Louis the 16 and Marie Antoinette like we have post in the palace sleigh thread.

This picture is in an hall of the Versailles with in the background an large panorama picture of the garden of the Versailles.


Picture nr. 2

This picture is taken in another room.
Here you see the French royal Prince-Princes carriage in an glass showcase.

Mention this is realy fancy stuff because it stands in an glass showcase.


Picture nr. 3.

Same carriage in this picture but take an very good look on the back ground.
Do you see what i see...

Now there is another glass showcase and this time with an Amsterdammmer horse sleigh.
This shows now already how special the Amsterdammer is for the Versailles at Paris France.


Now we all going to have an very close look at this Amsterdammer sleigh and there you can study the seat the under section and the little piece of iron on the back of the seat going downwards to the gliders.

The French called this sleigh The Amstellodamos de Pays Bas.

This is an very early one and looking at the 3 leggs going to the gliders it coult be also from arround 1682 before or after.


https://www.flickr.com/photos/morio6...n/photostream/



Now here i have another one from France

This one is younger

They are telling that this sleigh is an 18 century horse sleigh.
I think they are right.
Looking at the model it must be arround 1710-1720



http://palaisdecompiegne.fr/objet/tr...amstellodamois


Both Amsterdammers do not have bowstatues.

Tomorrow we are going further with study the Amsterdammers at the Belgium Royal collection.

More to come
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Old 11-29-2016, 01:57:24 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

The Amsterdammers of Belgium Horse Sleigh collection at Bruxelles,

Here is the line up of 4 Amsterdammers in the collection at Bruxelles.

They are wonderfull pieces of ancient art and they must be date end 17 century until begin half 18 century.

In the 18 century the Belgium revolution came up and before that it was laying in the south of Holland.
So Belgium was 400 years ago laying huge partly in Holland.
Now wonder that there are some Dutch Amsterdammers horse sleigh survivers.

Coming back at the model and date of the Amsterdammers horse sleigh.

Most of the Amsterdammers do not have an stagecouch drive seat on the back of the sleigh.
In that time the stagecouch driver was standing on the back of the sleigh.
And they had stand planks.
This was different then the later palace sleighs they dit mostly not have planks but stepholders with seat and sometimes extra leather shoe holders to keep the snow off from the shoes and give the stagecouch drivers warm foot for long trips.

The second Amsterdammer in the French chapter is having an stagecouch seat on the back but that coult be an later modification.
This happened in the early tractor buld and design aswel.


Then about dates these sleighs.
Some of the Amsterdammers are buld in the late golden age 1660 til 1702 and think most of Amsterdammers dat have survived are from right after the golden age.

There are 2 sleighs that we have notice in the woodcarve and cutting work are the same like us and that is the sleigh in the glass showcase at the Versailles and the Amsterdammer from 1682 in Holland only the one of us is having the early thin steel extra sceleton frame under the woodwork.

Picture 1, 2 and 3.

Notice the 3 on the side legg system most of the Amsterdammers have.
The steel S bracket all the Amsterdammers have going from the under the seat on the back towards the gliders.

Now stage couch seats on the back with an plank and the huge heavy seat system with an lot curled heavy woodwork.


Last picture first Amsterdammer is having an half bow statue of somekind of trumpet boy or girl.




Some have been changed in the years from there original clothing.


Next we are going to watch at the Amsterdammer from the Dutch Royal family.
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Old 11-30-2016, 02:20:18 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

The Amsterdammer horse sleigh from the Royal family in Holland,


Ok going further.

This time after the French and the Belgium we are going to watch to the Amsterdammer horse sleigh of the Dutch Royal family.

To watch this sleigh we have to vizit the Dutch Royal family site of the Loo palace.
Former palace aswel from King Louis Napoleon.

Now take an look at the next site and scrol downwards.

There you can see 2 horse sleighs coming up.

Now the horse sleigh most to the right is the Amsterdammer sleigh that once belonged towards Queen Emma, Queen Wilhelmina and Queen Juliana.

Now also take an look at the left horse sleigh.

This is the Royal Dutch silver sleigh and made in 1885 by the old German company P. Schreuder Dusseldorf.

Notice the frond section of this sleigh.
You can see there are 2 front stak’s coming up.
This is what we called the Austria, Zwiss model sleigh.
The Austria, Zwiss model is having an lot the 2 small eagle heads on the front of the sleigh.


http://www.hethuisvanoranje.nl/24%20...lenHetLoo.html

From this design model most of the horse sleigh models came out in the 19 and 20 century.
Because most sleighs in the world having 2 front staks coming up with curls or other decoration and an huge front plate behind it to keep the snow away from inside the sleigh when the horses are running.

I wil not say that it is ugly.
It having his charmes aswel and it is more practise.

Also like the English Victorian child sleighs.
They are fabulous aswel.



Now i started this thread with showing pictures of realy ancients wooden ships out of the old Dutch golden age.

Now there is one thing what you can recognise on all the ancient Dutch and French horse sleigh models from Amsterdammer, Sjeesar. Louis the 15, 16, Napoleon, Animal sleigh, Chinoire, Shell Sleigh, Tikker etc etc is that there design came from the old ships from the golden age.

Mention they realy dit have the same fabulous back mirrors with gold, decoration etc and there one front with mostly one bow statue section like the old wooden ships in the old Dutch golden age had.

Holland used this style for centurys on there ancient horse sleighs.

Now i have seen some animals sleighs from the black forrests in Germany and some late Polish iron sleighs but for the rest i only have seen it only from Holland towards France.

Wil not say that all the style in these sleigh came all from Holland.
The fashion and the rest of the design came from France.
This was copy on an very good and smart way towards the sleighs in the old Holland.


More to come,
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Old 12-01-2016, 01:51:50 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Going further,

First i have been checking some things today and study the old horse sleigh from Poland.
They also having the 2 front stak coming up on there frontbow with the huge keep off snow plate.

So they do not have the design like Holland.

So as far i know the horse sleighs that where buld in the old Holland (province South and North Holland) used the old wooden ship models style from the 16 and 17 century as the only country in the world.

Now what realy start to wonder now dit the French buld them self aswel or let them buld in Holland.

One thing is for sure not looking at the ancient ship model the rest taste, fashion and design realy came from France on the old Dutch sleigh.


Can not understand other collectors from Holland never jumped in this hobby.

As far i know i am the only one in Holland doing this hobby with searching the exotical ones.
Mention there are carriage collectors enough in Holland but they only have 1 or 2 tikkers in there collection.



Going further with posting some of the 25 Amsterdammers that dit survived in the hole world.


Here is another one.


This Amsterdammer horse sleigh came from in the south of Holland out of the collection of one of Europes biggest furniture dealer.

Notice this Amsterdammer is having an way other under section then the other ones.

This one is having 4 leggs going down towards the gliders with an mid section connetor.
This was an newer system an date arround begin of the 18 century right after the golden age.

Wel it is sure an Amsterdammer and it is having the Amsterdammer S bracket aswel from the back of the seat going to the under gliders.

Most Amsterdammers do not have bow statues.
This one is having an small dragon head coming out of the front section.



Next more Amsterdammers are going to make there entrance here on Smokstak with more study towards them.

By the end of the next week we are going to start upload pictures of the wreckage of the Amsterdammer that we have found.

More to come,
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Old 12-02-2016, 01:36:06 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Another 2 Amsterdammers are making there entrance on the horse site of Smokstak.....

The first 2 pictures are the Zealand Amsterdammer 1720.
This straight liner Amsterdammer was buld for the province Zealand with some kind of model of the Amsterdammer.
It does not having the S bend iron on the back but they called it somekind of Amsterdammer.

This sleigh is possetion of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.


Picture 3 and 4 are the Polarbear Amsterdammer.

This Amsterdammer was found original in the Hague (the old Holland) on an old rich estate.

The exiting thing on this sleigh that it is having and half size bowstatue of the polar bear doing very angry with his mouth open...




Next we are going to talk and watch towards an Amsterdammer with an bowstatue.
Not the one we found but the one at the Dutch National Carriage collection.


More to come,
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Old 12-03-2016, 08:32:59 AM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Ok going further,

The next 2 Amsterdammer horse sleighs are an mixture and coming close to the model of the wreckage of the horse sleigh we found in France from that old castle.

The bow statue Amsterdammer horse sleigh,

On the next 3 pictures we can see an bow statue Amsterdammer horse sleigh.

This sleigh dates begin until half 18 century and is possetion of the National Dutch carriage and sleigh collection at Leek and the Horse and Carros collection.


I only ever have seen 2 real bow statue Amsterdammers.

The first is this one on the pictures with somekind of thin sceleton frame under the sleigh.
On the front there is Diana sitting.
Diana is the ancient female god of the hunters or the hunting season.







Now here is the other bow statue Amsterdammer.

I already have been posted another thread on Smokstak about this sleigh.
The sleigh is to see on an very old painting cart picture and taken in the second part of the golden age 1650/1702 on the golden bend/Gentemen street/Herengracht in the center of the old Amsterdam.

Now i have study with Jaap after the thread was post this picture.
Jaap told that the bowstatue on that Amsterdammer is not Diane but an nobelian male stagecoach figure from the 17 century.

So they made different figures as bow statues on the early Amsterdammers.

https://www.smokstak.com/forum/showthread.php?t=159062


The Golden age Amsterdammer horse sleigh was not design for Royal family’s of Europe.
It was only made and design for the most rich /nobelian people of Amsterdam in the golden age.
That ones that where owners of the fleet of ships called VOC Dutch East and West Indies.



Dutch historian Geert Mak wrote and once told.

Amsterdam was the 17 century the prosper golden city full with flooting (and lot water arround) houses as palaces in the Europe while the rest was still an lot hidding in the middle ages.

Next we are going to watch towards one of the oldest sleigh survivors of Europe.
The Amsterdammer horse sleigh from 1682.
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Old 12-04-2016, 06:33:09 AM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Oldest styled Horse Sleigh of Europe the 1682 Amsterdammer,


Ok here you all can see the oldest styled horse sleigh of Europe...

An big thank posting for picture 3 and source of the catalog of National horse carriage and sleigh collection at Leek and the Dutch foundation Horse and Caros.

Posting this picture as evidence in the sleigh that we have found and soon going to post here.

This sleigh must have been restored looking at the stumblin condition.

Now the sleigh that we have found is having marks from the sceleton frame and bow statue sleigh chapter 11 and the under leggs towards the gilders on this sleigh are on the sleigh chapter 12 (this chapter).

There is also something more to notice.
The sleigh in the glass showcase at the Versalles is having the same under leggs as the oldest in Holland and the wrekage we found.
Going to find out in the future how old that one wil be ?.



About the Griffon bow statue on the wreckage sleigh that we found in France,

The Griffon is an very old ancien legendairy creature half Lion and half bird.

The half Lion stands for protection the land

The half bird stands for protection the sky.

It is also an very big warn towards everybody that is coming to close towards the sleigh that the bird lion beast will say hold on there and not come to close or further.
This big ancient beast is standing on the frontbow as an protection towards the sleigh and the people in it.

Now you all start to understand what kind of fabulous big ancient horse sleigh is on his way towards Smokstak next week and Christmas..


Ok until so far the Amsterdammers sleighs that have survived.
I am sure there are an coople more Amsterdammers sleighs that have survived from the arround number of 25 but most importand models you have seen now.


When there is time i wil try to post an coople historical chapters in this story aswel like.

The Old Amsterdam Europe and the New Amsterdam (New York) America.


And an very sad story from the golden age.


We hope arround the end of this week start to upload pictures of the unknown Amsterdammer horse sleigh wreckage that we have found.

Stay tune here with some very intresting chapters going to show up here soon.
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Old 12-05-2016, 03:11:22 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

The old Amsterdam Holland Europe and New Amsterdam New York America,

Most of you know the story about New Amsterdam later become New York.

I want to pay some attention in this story aswel.

Arround 2 years ago something very intresting showed up near an Antique dealer in the center of New York ! ?.





The first Dutch settlers arrived 1609 /1624 at the riverbanks on the Hudson river what later became as New York.

In the early days this Dutch colony was called New Amsterdam.

It was not only named New Amsterdam but it was also an copy of the real old Amsterdam because.

There where water Chanels and roads in the same figures laying as Amsterdam.
There was an golden bend street with called the same as the Herengracht and there was even an old fashion Dutch windmill....

In the same time as the Dutch golden age.


In the past made some jokes on Smokstak that we trade New Amsterdam for Surinamen with the British.

Wel this is not the truth.

It was years later after we given out New Amsterdam that we coult lay our hands on Suriname.

The story with given off New Amsterdam is that the British and French power was over whelming for the Dutch.

At the moment there is not much to find anymore of the Dutch in New York.

Wel there is something and that is the bend and the lay of the Streets on Manhattan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-UGFyIp6xw&t=283s


Coming back on the begin of this subject.

Now what was showed up near that antique dealer in the center of New York 2 years ago.

It is to see in the picture inside this chapter....


So once 350 years ago they where to find in the New Amsterdam, America aswel the Amsterdammers from the Old Amsterdam of Holland and this was way before the founding fathers and Lewis and Clark......


More to come,
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Old 12-06-2016, 01:45:30 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Ok and very sad story from the golden age,

It was not all gliter and glamour.
There is always another side of the medalion with these kind things.
Not all the ship owners where traders in stuff and colonial spices
Some realy dit trade humans and slaves.


Like Dutch historian Geert Mak told.

Amsterdam was the golden city of Europe in the 17 century.

This attracted people from all over Europe.

This was also with an girl named Elsje Christaens from Jutland.
She went to Amsterdam to find work in one of the palace houses.


On the end she was killed on an most horrible way.
Wel she dit killed her landlady with an axe.

There is an lot to do about this story.
Some say that her landlady wanted to let her go in to prostitution.
This is why she killed her land lady.

We never realy find out what happened but anybody that is having intrest here is her story with the painting that was made by Rembrandt in an boat when she was hanging on the small Island north of Amsterdam where now the old shell office bulding is standing.


This is one of the most sad story’s from the golden age...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elsje_Christiaens


Until so far all of this.

Now it is time for some happines in this thread.

What is next.

Next in this thread is that we all going to watch to the sleigh wreckage of an Amsterdammer sleigh that we have found in France.
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Old 12-07-2016, 02:54:49 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Yust came home from an very exiting day.......

First we went towards Jaap his sleigh restauration shop drink coffee and study all the sleighs and work.

Have been taken 100 pictures of all of this.

Then we went home but drive further towards the south of Holland after an advertisment and discovered an amazing old treasury in an old cellar under an old House close to Rotterdam.

We have bought an increddible huge item that once been standing in the 19 century in an old big church in Holland.

It was an increddible work this evening to pull it out of this old cellar where it have been standing for more then 40 years under the dust.


Next saturday it will be shipped carreful with an truck towards our farm.

I am going to give you all some pictures of what it is and it will be showed up with Christmas compleet on Smokstak with the message the Angels are on there way..........


This sleigh was found on an castle in France.

Before we start upload the pictures of this sleigh we are going to bring the Smokstakers in the mood with an French song belonged to the amazing item that we found today in that old cellar in Rotterdam and to see in the 2 pictures of this chapter.


Les Marches Des Angles with the message already wish you all an Merry Christmas !,


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KN2O0pqfJHQ







Tomorrow we are going to start upload mountains of pictures of one of the most beautiful horse sleighs of Europe.
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Old 12-08-2016, 01:26:19 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

The French Amsterdammer Horsesleigh,


Ok we are going to start up with some lines of pictures of the Amsterdammer that we found in France.

The sleigh is an wreckage and lay compleet out of each others.

To watch the sleigh we are going to bring it in with parts and chapters.


The First chapter wil be the fragile under section.

We are going to start up with small pictures taken an coople weeks ago when Jaap placed the undersection an little bit in each other.


Undersection,

It is not only and sleigh from the golden age but the sleigh wil be gold aswel and wil be called in our collection as the Golden Sleigh.
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Old 12-08-2016, 01:32:34 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Undersection 2

Here are more pictures coming up.

Very carefully the undersection placed in each other.

On the first hand the frame work is coming the closed to the Diane sleigh in post 11 with the sceleton frame.

Wel it is an sceleton frame but with the woodwork from sleigh post 12.
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Old 12-08-2016, 01:37:02 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Undersection 3,

Now here are the first marks that we are dealing with an Amsterdammer Horse Sleigh specialy in picture 1 because there you can see the special ancient bend S iron that is going from the back under the main seat towards the gliders.
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Old 12-08-2016, 01:40:53 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Undersection 4,

More images of the undersection.
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Old 12-08-2016, 01:50:38 PM
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Default Re: The French Amsterdammer, The Horsesleigh from the Golden Age 1682

Undersection 5,

Now take an very good look at pictures 1, 2 and 3.
After study the leave, flower wood cutting work then go towards chapter 12 of this thread and watch the leggs of the Amsterdammer that was made in 1682.
Almost execly the same way of wood cut work.....and the same as the sleigh in the Versailles in the glass showcase....




Tomorrow we are going to study the midsection then later days the upper section and then further the big bowstatue....
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