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Detailed Restoration of 3 1/2 HP Tank Cooled GSM

Wayne Grenning

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The following chronicles a major restoration effort of a 3 1/2 HP Goold Shapley and Muir tank cooled engine. This rare engine is hit and miss, with ported exhaust, make and break ignition, and gasoline fuel injection.

This is a true basket case engine project that will need a lot of attention to bring back to life. I have in the past (on a different bulletin board ) posted progress of other full scale engine restoration efforts, with positive response. With that in mind I thought I would post the progress here. It is a long term project that will span several months and up to a year.

A little background on this engine. It was a beautiful complete engine needing a typical restoration as of 10 - 15 years ago until the surprise event of a building toppling down on top of it.( two owners ago ) . You can see the results. Many broken and bent parts and the cylinder literally broken off of the frame and a governor side flywheel that is nothing more than a hub with shredded spokes radiating from its center.

The owner of this engine was fortunate enough to locate many key parts over a several year period. This past year it became part of an engine trade and ended up with a new owner and garage to reside in ( one owner ago). Upon close examination by the new owner it was quickly realized that the scope of this project exceeded his desires and abilities. Through another more recent engine transaction I ended up with it ( current owner ) . Interestingly enough as I got a close look it was almost more of a project that I really cared to get into myself - but, always enjoying a challenge I thought it would be fun, especially since small tank cooled engines like this are not easy to come by.

Some of the major steps covered in this discussion will be:

1) Identifying the extent of the damage ( beyond the obvious)

2) Get replacement parts ( flea market or Internet)

3) Those parts that are not available need to be reproduced

4) Reproduce flywheel

5) Cylinder / piston repair

6) Head repair

7) Governor repair

8) Crankshaft & main bearing repair

9) Make a new belt drive water pump

10) Make exhaust system

11) Water tank and associated piping

12) Present the engine, tanks and related parts on an appropriate skid

So with that said, what follows will be a photographic record of the restoration process with some comments and text. Please feel free to use this format to interject comments and/or questions. What will be shown here is only one way to approach this project. There are unlimited ways to address every step. Lets use this as a way for all of us to learn!

Any comments, thoughts or suggestions about the progress or methods are more than welcome.

The first several photos give a little background of the engine.


Pre 2009 This shows the engine several years prior to this effort after the building fell on the engine. Note the cylinder has been forcefully removed from the base and the governor side flywheel is shattered.


XA1059 Serial number of the engine stamped on the end of the water jacket. I am not sure why Goold Shapley & Muir used the XA prefix. Any thoughts? See this link to see a registery of other Goold Shapley and Muir engines
It is obvious from the serial number that this is an early example.


This is a donor base and cylinder located by the 1st owner


April 2009 - Another view of the Donor engine and the original engine frame in our shop.
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Another view of the same block showing details of the rear. Even though there were a few parts that could be used, there would be a lot of effort needed to bring them back to life. Note the condition of the crank shaft bearing brasses.


One of the first steps with any engine restoration is the removal of the cylinder head. This usually gives some indication of what is in store - Ouch ! Don't you just hate it when you look into a cylinder for the first time and see this ?? A little WD-40 and a Scotch Bright pad and we will be in business! - If only it were this easy and inexpensive.............
Thank you for taking the time to chronicle this for us! It will be a great opportunity to watch a rare engine come together and learn the process of restoring a basically destroyed basket case. Keep us posted!

Shown here is the combustion side of the cylinder head. Valves need replacing and guides need to be opened up to accept oversize valve stems.


Let the fun begin. An engine restoration project can never commence w/o breaking a bunch of studs or bolts. At least the two right studs came out.



After lots of intense localized heat from the welding tip of an Oxy-Acetylene torch, I some how thought it would unscrew? - Nope
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After closely measuring the center of the stud and marking with a center punch it was drilled out so only the thread portion of the stud remained.


It was rather amazing to see the remaining thread portion of the stud pull out like this. Usually it takes a small sharp chisel and lots of patience to extract the remaining fragments


The threaded holes in the head after chasing with a tap. These are also 1/2" x 12 threads, that are typically found on turn-of-the-century engines.
Hi .... Wayne I have a all original engine like yours, if I can help in any way let me know. I also have a 1912 parts manual, if you wish copied pages let me know. It would be best to send them to you direct if I resize them to Smoke stack size you may not be able to read them.
... Owen


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Great to see that little baby brought back to life Wayne. Thanks for posting the project progression. It will be fun to watch and I can't wait to see the end result.
I watched all the restoration projects you posted online, and every one was fascinating to follow. I know this one is gonna be good.

One question though; if all that is going to remain of the engine you started with is the crank, one flywheel, cylinder head, and a few small pieces, can it still be considered a restoration of the first engine? No offense meant, I am just genuinely curious. Or are you planning to repair the cylinder/base?
Eric, No offense taken. You have a good question. I am still using many of the parts from the original destroyed engine and probably did not explain that well enough above - my apologies. I have the original broken cylinder assembly as well as the head, governor fuel system & piston . Even though the photo of the "parts engine" implied it is almost complete and was going to be used for all of the parts, the governor body was broken in two and brazed back together & the piston and rod unusable. Other than small parts ( like the push rod and hard to find little bits) the only significant part that will be used from the donor engine is the cylinder & possibly the head.

Owen, Thanks for posting the photos of beautiful engine. It gives me a hope of what mine should look like when complete.
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Next comes the removal of the piston. Rumor had it that piston was not "really stuck". Lets just say I had my doubts about the accuracy of that statement after close examination of the cylinder bore. Here it is shown standing on its end soaked with " Kroil" penetrating oil. Their claim to fame is that it will penetrate into spaces as small as a millionths across. That's 0.000001" ( 1/1000th of a thousandths of an inch) !!!. Everyone has their favorite loose juice. This one is mine, I have been using it for 25 years in the petrochemical industry and also with the old engine collecting hobby with great results. A link to their product follows. I do believe it can only be purchased directly from them and not through a distributor as with most products.



Off to the band saw and a 4x4 with the corners trimmed off fit perfectly into the 4 1/8" cylinder bore. I was not really going to whack it too hard with the hammer but wanted to determine if a hydraulic pushing setup was needed. I do not advocate dis-assembly with a hammer, but, if I were to be so lucky as to gets attention with a few gentle "taps" it would make this step much easier.


After soaking with Kroil from both ends for a couple days and a few substantial thumps from the persuader it moved. So the story of it not being really stuck was true. At least I did not have to put the whole cylinder in a large hydraulic press or in a big wood fire to loosen the rust bond.

More success - almost all the way out. If it were any tighter I would have abandoned this effort and used the the hydraulic cylinder method. I hate hammering on things.

A note of caution with using a block of wood. It is best to make the end of the wood piece concave so it will not focus its force on the head of the piston. I have heard of this happening and collapsing the end of the piston. Also the outer 1/2" of the blocks face should be flat, this way it will not put force on the thin section of piston material just above the piston rings - which could easily break.


This piston is now removed and we can better examine the cylinder. With the rear water jacket cover ring removed from the cylinder you can see the water used to cool this engine was not of the greatest quality. About 65% of the jacket was packed with baked in calcium deposits. A carbide tipped drill should take care of it. This step will be done later in the restoration. Next step is to send the cylinder to a shop and be rebored & honed.


Piston and rod assembly as removed from the cylinder. What a long piston! Upon examination it will need total rework as well. The rings are paper thin, the wrist pin has about 1/8" dia clearance and the OD will need to be metal sprayed once the cylinder bore gets established to its new oversize dimension.

Note: This piston will be thoroughly examined but I doubt it will be used.. Most likely the original Piston/Rod assembly will be used as they are significantly heavier and match the larger counter weights on the flywheel of this engine.


Shown here are the piston rod and pin.
Hi Wayne,
I am really enjoying the progress so far and also seeing closeups of some of the parts that my engine is missing. I thought I'd pass along that I have been using a electric die grinder with a wire wheel to clean rusty cylinders and pistons for some years as it works better than a hone(bad rust may need heavy wires or a knotted wheel), hope it helps you to clean yours. Nathan.
Wayne, if you have your piston reworked you will note that the skirt is larger in diameter then the area were the rings are. The rings are not that thick as there is a expansion ring under them.
.......... Owen
Nathan, The wire wheel is a good idea and would probably work well on a cylinder that is not totally worn out, but this cylinder is oval by more than 0.025" That along with the deep rust pits and worn ring lands I chose to have it rebored. It would really be clunking in the bore if I left it alone. Thanks for the suggestion.

Owen, actually I have not taken the rings off of the piston yet. Are all GSM rings made thin with back up springs? Thanks for the tip.

Do you know what the muffler on the tank cooled units looked like. Were they all like the one on yours or were any of the pot muffler type?
Early July 2009


I only have one crankshaft between the project engine and donor block and it unfortunately is the one from the engine that the flywheel was broken off of. Here is the end of it in the lathe. An indicator was not needed to check the straightness of this one. !!!

Notice the gap between the cutter and the shaft. The next photo show it rotated 180 Degrees


Rotated 180 degrees. And now I find out that it has a one inch bend in the crank. Things are not looking good.


I figured I would humor myself and attempt to straighten it in my 20 Ton lab press. After a lot of playing around I got it within 0.025" but the way it bent when the building fell on it is not easy to fix. Rather than a simple bend it looks more like a "W" when measuring down its length. Also it is twisted through the crank pin. It is close enough that I probably could have it turned down ( removed 0.050 across the whole length) and send it to a crank shop where it would be built up with a submerge-arc weld process, stress relieved then ground to size. I am not sure if I will be doing this or not. Depends on the price of the hot rolled metal stock and if the crank shop can convince me a repair will be strong enough and not break afterwards.

Decision time.


After straightening

This shot shows the rust pitting on the crank. I am leaning toward making a new crankshaft - the hard way, from a piece of Hot Rolled A 36 Steel plate.

I will be talking with the Crankshaft repair shop shortly to see what my options.
Just a thought that came up in a previous thread... All the crud packed around the cylinder can actually cause it to be pushed in, reducing the size of the bore. If this crud is pushing in on it when you do the boring and honing, then clean it out - the bore could enlarge a slight amount. I don't remember the specific thread, but the jist of it is that the piston fit really tight, he cleaned out the water hopper, and the piston fit fine.

Due to this, I would probably clean the crud out before boring and honing.

Thanks for the progress pics, as usual!

Stepping away from the crank shaft and cylinder for a moment. These photos show some details of a few other components that need addressing.

The ignitor show here is the best one of three that came with the engine. The casting is broken in two places and needs to be reworked. The other two were both just broken bare ignitor bodies. Later on I will make a loose ignitor pattern and show an easy way to make that.


The Governor - The spindle is bent, the weights are broken, the reaction plate on the spindle is broken and there is an ugly repair to the base of the main bracket. The Donor engine frame has one that is not in great shape either but between the two and with a bunch of new parts, cleaning up old ones and remachining others, a good one can be made.


The Rockers - It appears this engine had a lot of hours on the clock !


Rocker arm bracket. - Both ears have been broken off and brazed back on. I will most likely rework this part into a functional pattern and have a new one cast

Wayne the GSM&Co mufflers are not unlike Ohio mufflers. Long cylindrical with pipe like reducing bushings in the ends. I'll get Jonathan to take a picture of mine and post it.