• If you like antique engines, vintage tractors or old iron machinery, register and join us. When you register on Smokstak, please give complete answers and fill in all blanks. IF YOU ARE ON WIRELESS OR SATELLITE, GIVE YOUR CITY AND STATE! NO ZIPCODES! All registrations are manually approved.

Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log


Thought I would start a log showing my progress in bringing this big beast to life again. Or more apropriatly my painfully slow progess.:rolleyes:

Just a bit of background: My engine is a Wisconsin Model PT circa 1926. (s/n 1145) It was original equipment in a 10 ton Lombard Model N Tractor built in Waterville, ME. (Unfortunatly I don't have the tractor to go with it!)

Specs are as follows:

6 Cylinder (cast in pairs)

5-3/4" bore x 7" stroke

1091 CID. (17.9 Liters)

4 Main bearings (2-5/8")

4 bolt rods:D

bronze backed babbit bearings

100% Full pressure lubrication (the oil pump is actually two seperate pumps in one - Service & Scavange. A full length baffle-plate seperates the crankshaft from the oil pan)

How many of these engines Wisconsin produced is not known. It was eventually replaced by the Model D which still featured cylinders cast in pairs but was an overhead valve design.

Anyway, I aquired it in November of 2007 and have been working off and on since. This engine last ran in 1933 and was abandoned in northern Maine. All the bronze fittings were removed many years ago with not much regard to damage inflicted to the rest of the engine.

So with that said here is progress to date:

As found - note the slinky springs!

Thankfully it wasn't stuck after 74 years


The valves were bent so they could remove the bronze lifter guides
I had to cut them to get them out. They are 2-5/8"dia. 1/2" stem and 8" long

This is one of the 12 lifters and guides. Two survived and the others were aquired with the engine (thankgoodness!) I had to make two new lifters to replace a couple that were beyound salvage.

These are the new valve guides. We machined these from gray cast iron
They are 4 inches long. The old guides were well worn and broken when the valves were bent. The originals were cast as one piece but we made ours two piece - the large boss was turned seperate and press fit against a shoulder.



Like I said earlier - all the bronze fittings were salvaged many years ago in a most brutal fashion. Here is the smashed oil pump drive housing - it runs off the exhaust cam. Next to it is the pattern and corebox for a replacement.

Here is what it will look like when finished


The valve stems were enclosed in two piece alluminum shrouds. Like everything else these went missing a long time ago. Thankfully Don (the gentleman I aquired the engine from)
had a pattern and corebox fabricated and had cast a bunch of them. I have 10 pairs and will need to cast only two more. :D



The crankcase is a 500 lb manganese bronze casting.:D

Why it didn't get melted down is speculation. But I suspect the remote location (Churchill Lake now part of the Allagash Widerness Waterway) It took a heck of a lot of scrubbing to get it nice and shiney!

I apologize for the poor photo.

Here is the oil pump ready for installation. Fortunatly the 6 bronze impellers were ok.

More photos to follow as progress inches forward

Best regards,



Last Subscription Date
Thanks for starting this build log, I will be following along. Perhaps I will pick up some pointers on how to fabricate lost or broken parts.



Thanks for starting this build log, I will be following along. Perhaps I will pick up some pointers on how to fabricate lost or broken parts.
Thanks Steve,

Iam learning a lot of new things too as this moves forward. Pattern making, machine work etc. Isn't that what hobbies are for? (LOL)

Heres a good great site to learn about casting, pattern making etc.


Checkout the Forum. Lots of good stuff!

The next few month's Iam devoting to making my patterns and core boxes - then come warmer weather I can start casting. This weekend I will be starting the patterns for the intake manifold and hopefully make some progress on getting the new valves machined.

Here are a few more photo's:

My engine did have a starter. It was a big Leece-Neville as seen in the photo below. This one is mounted on a 4 cylinder Wisconsin setup for marine use.Needless to say if you have one kicking around let me know! :wave:

This is the governor. Its a unit made by Pharo. to date I have not come across another like it. This, like just about everything else with this engine , needs work and will need a new casting to replace the broken resevoir. I keep telling myself its worth all the effort because its a real cool engine!



More shiney Bronze:)

This is the front crankcase cover. The angle drive for the
governor is on the left. The governor is driven by helical gear on the end of the intake cam. The bearing for the exhaust cam
is on the right.



Starting on the patterns for the intake manifold. Fortunatly the original was built-up and not one big casting. Today I made a 1:1 mock-up of a flange so I could verify my measurements. I want to duplicate the original as close as possible.

Once I verify it matches the original I will make any modifications needed to my mech. drawing. (the drawing I will use for machining and assembly) Then I will create a drawing for the pattern and corebox. This will be scaled-up to offset shrinkage as well as add materail to allow for machining the face and for draft so the pattern can be pulled after being rammed-up. This is fairly easy if your using a CAD program.

The flange as it comprises the pattern will be split to accomidate the sand molding process. The bolt holes and recess will not be part of the pattern but bored and machined later.

I plan to fabricate the patterns for the two tee's first then move onto the elbows. The combination tee & elbow will be last (easy to hard right?)

Below is one of the alloy valve blanks. I got these through Carl M. Cummings Manufacturing. They supply valves for Alco, G.E. & EMD Diesels. These were for a G.E. unit. They are oversize and will need to be turned, ground and cut to length.

---------- Post added at 07:23 PM ---------- Previous post was at 07:19 PM ----------


Intended this be included in my last post. This is what the original intake manifold would have looked like.



Here is a photo of one of the rod bearings. Yes, you hotrodders can brag about 4 bolt mains but this beast has 4 bolt rod ends! All the bearings are babbit lined bronze shells.
The rod bearings are 2-5/8" dia. x 3-1/2" long.

Unfortunatly during the 6-7 years this engine was operating it got a lot of had use. Having powered one of Ed Lacroix's Lombard log haulers this meant working 24 hours a day 6 days per week over an average of a 90 day hauling period.

Every bearing is either cracked or pieces of babbit have flaked-off. All will need to be relined.

To illustrate how hard this engine was used here is one of Lacroix's Lombard's pulling a long train of sleds loaded with pulwood:


This brochure is the only written information I have on the Model PT engine (thanks Don!) and Lombard is the only manufacturer I know of that used them in a vehical. It was marketed as a high end marine engine and for industrial applications - pumping stations etc.

If anyone has any other information on these beasts please let me know!

Lombard was known to use some interesting stuff: T-head Van-Blercks, Sterling Model F's - both of which were high end marine engines and are extremly rare to near non-existant.



This evening was spent turning some more wood for the intake patterns. No pics of that process yet.

Meanwhile, here are the pistons and connecting rods laid out.

Here is another item to add to the smashed and broken list - which is quite long. In thier efforts to steal the bronze pipes and fittings from the waterpump they smashed one flange and neck. Apparently at some point the thrust bearings on the bronze impeller and the cast iron housing gave out. This caused heavy damage to the face of the impeller and allowed it to wear into the housing. Fortunatly Don provided me with a new/old stock impeller and a non-smashed housing. I will have to machine a new shaft and clean-up the thrust bearings on the housing.

Why a bronze impeller in a cast iron case? Seems to me back in the days when water was THE coolant the cast iron thrust bearing would rust-up after sitting awhile and the thrust bearings would pitt then you would be in a whole world of hurt as in this instance. I know in the marine applications of this engine they used a bronze housing.

Look closely at the photo and you can see the heavy scoring inside the housing and on the impeller. In fact both thrust bearings are completly worn away. Also the shaft is heavily necked from the packing.

Thats it for know. Best regards,



Enar Drugge

Last Subscription Date
Gee, I have been on Churchill Lake several times as I canoed the Allagash. I didn't see this engine or I would have put it in my canoe and lugged it home! Are there any engines up by Eagle Lake? I have seen the big locomotives up there, but never spotted a one lunger (or six lunger) that I can recall.:)


Hello Enar,

Yes, there is not much there now. Up-until the early 70's there was still a lot of stuff.

When I first went there in 1974 the tractor shed was till standing and there was a big pile of make & breaks etc. behind the warehouse.

During one of thier "Back-to-Nature" phases, the Department of Conservation burned the tractor shed the following year. Thankfully, a guy operating a skidder was nearby and hauled the last of the Lombard's out before they lit it.

Both are now in a private collection. My engine came from one of them when he replaced it with a complete and running Wisconsin that came from a pumping station.

Unfortunatly a treasure trove of artifacts went up in flame - a boom boat with a big Palmer? (the engine was saved) bataux's, sled runners, and shelves of parts.

Later the state hauled all the old make & breaks away. There was one at Tramway - or I should say the pieces of one. It was a Samson with a beaver logo cast into the hopper. Unfortunatly a few years ago somebody stole the hopper.

Ironicly, now the State is trying to gather artifacts etc. and has developed a small museum. Sort of putting the cart before the horse.

Churchill Depot Tractor shed 1974

Discarded engine - Churchill Depot 1975

Here are some older photos

The engine I have came from this tractor - Churchill Depot 1969

Inside the tractor shed - Churchill Depot 1969


Now that the busy Christmas season is past and the days are short, the snow is deep and its too darn cold outside. I have been spending some evenings in the shop.

After teaching myself how to use a lathe:eek: I managed to make the first pattern for the intake manifold. I started with one of the tees.

The big problem was I kept getting mezmorized watching the wood peel away and then before I know it I had turned the piece undersize! I am such an amature....

Anyways like the original, these will be cast in bronze and connected with brass pipe. I turned the core prints to the inside diameter of the pipe. During machining the ends will be counterbored to the outside diameter of the pipe to provide a smooth passage. I could use a stepped core but with the finished wall of the fitting only .125" thick I didn't trust that I could be that accurate with the core placement.

Now its onto the core box.

The finished pattern

The pattern is split to facilitate casting

Here is a sketch of the complete manifold. The pattern above is for the shaded fitting

Best regards,



Thought you might like to hear what my engine will sound like when its finally one.

This is a short clip of my friend Don's 10 ton Lombard Model N tractor. The engine I have came from this tractor. Don had swapped it for a complete and functioning Wisconsin PT. The noise is fantastic! Sorry for the shakey camera work...



Last Subscription Date
Nice!! Hope yours sounds as good when your done. I've got to admire you and anyone else who goes to such lengths to fabricate and rebuild parts for these engines. By the way,what's up with the track inside the track? Did that do away with the road wheels(guide wheels)? Also is the rear gear the drive gear in the track?
Last edited:


what's up with the track inside the track? Did that do away with the road wheels(guide wheels)? Also is the rear gear the drive gear in the track?
Hello Mark,

good question. Lombard used roller chains to tranfer the weight of the tractor to the track. There are 4 chains - 2 per side. With very few exceptions he used this design in one form or another from his very first steam log hauler in 1900 through to the end of production in 1936. It actually proved to be a very durable and smooth system. If operated on snow as most of these tractors were the roller chains could last up to 7800 miles on average.

In answer to the second question - Yes the drive is taken by the rear sprockets.

Here are a couple of his 1917 patent drawings to help explain how it works. Note the patent drawins show the roller chains running around idlers on the sprocket shafts while the chains on the tractor in the video do not. This was a odd variation. We think the purpose was to take some of the stress off of the cross-shafts. However, it meant that wear in the rollers and the runner could not be compensated for.

Lombard did use rollers/idlers on a few tractors including the Model 'T' and the CSS88. Both were meant for use in the construction industry - mud, dirt etc. while the roller chain was used on tractors used in the logging industry - snow & ice



Here are a few more photos to illustrate Lombard's unique track system.

This one is pretty cool. Its the remains of a Lombard that was cut in two. Here you can see the runner with the roller chains and track laid-out beneath it.